In recent years, CETAF (Consortium of European Taxonomic Facilities) institutions have started to enrich their collection data with links to semantic resources (e.g. persons or geographical units). In this way, it is possible for the first time to represent distributed collections as a unified information space and to enhance them with various external resources. An example of this approach is this "Botany Pilot", in which diverse data on collectors of botanical specimens are made accessible by linking a reliable and stable person ID (e.g. a so called QID in Wikidata). This includes, for example, biographical data from Wikidata, specimens in different herbarium collections, publications in BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library) and, more recently, entries from Based on a single person identifier, the respective information is dynamically pulled together with linked data mechanisms from a growing number of web resources.

Best practices on CETAF identifiers in general are compiled at
For further information you can contact us under email

Participating institutions


Richard Spruce
  * 1817   † 1893
British botanist and explorer (1817–1893)

Publications by Richard Spruce



Claimed natural history specimens collected or identified by Richard Spruce

Scientific Name Country Institution Date
Pteris L.PeruNHMUK
Trattinnickia burserifolia Mart.BrazilMeiseBG1853
Sarmentaria decora NaudinBrazilMeiseBG
Phthirusa stenophylla EichlerVenezuelaMeiseBG1853
Lastreopsis effusa (Sw.) TindalePeruMeiseBG1856-08
Antrophyum immersum Willd.BrazilMeiseBG1852
Microgramma persicariifolia (Schrad.) C.PreslBrazilMeiseBG1854-06
Polystichum montevidensePeruMeiseBG1855
Drosera capillaris Poir.BrazilMeiseBG1853
Psittacanthus cucullaris (Lam.) G.DonBrazilMeiseBG1852-10


Virtual International Authority File of Richard Spruce

    Preferred Labels of Richard Spruce:
  • Ricardo Spruce@nl-NL
  • Richard Spruce@fr-FR
  • Richard Spruce@de-DE
  • Richard Spruce@ja-JP
  • Richard Spruce@cs-CZ
  • Richard Spruce@en-US

Information about media items stored by Europeana

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